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- Adolescent puberty changes
- Aging, especially in association with low testosterone levels
- Certain genetic disorders causing low levels of testosterone
- Certain medications, such as digoxin (a heart medication), spironolactone (a diuretic), cimetidine (a medication for stomach conditions), and many others
- Anabolic steroids used to enhance athletic performance in sports
- Marijuana use
- Liver or kidney failure
- Chronic kidney disease
- Hyperthyroidism (overactive thyroid gland)
- Tumors of the testicles, lung, stomach, liver, kidney, or pituitary gland
- Enlargement of the breasts with firm tissue, usually on both sides
- Blood sample—to check the function of your liver, thyroid, and kidneys, as well as other hormone levels
- Ultrasound—a test that uses sound waves to examine the breasts
- CT scan—a type of x-ray that uses a computer to make pictures of the breasts
- Biopsy—a sample of breast tissue may be removed and evaluated
American Academy of Family Physicians http://familydoctor.org
American Academy of Pediatrics http://www.healthychildren.org
Health Canada http://www.hc-sc.gc.ca/index%5Fe.html
Men's Health Centre http://www.menshealthcentre.net/index.htm
Gynecomastia. EBSCO DynaMed website. Available at: http://www.ebscohost.com/dynamed/what.php. Updated July 2009. Accessed August 17, 2012.
Gynecomastia: when breasts form in males. American Academy of Family Physicians website. Available at: http://familydoctor.org/online/famdocen/home/men/general/080.html. Updated February 2009. Accessed August 17, 2012.
Johnson RE, Kermott CA, Murad MH. Gynecomastia: evaluation and current treatment options. Ther Clin Risk Manag. 2011;7:145-148.
Wollina U, Goldman A. Minimally invasive esthetic procedures of the male breast. J Cosmet Dermatol. 2011 Jun;10(2):150-155.
- Reviewer: Michael Woods, MD
- Review Date: 09/2012 -
- Update Date: 00/92/2012 -