(Dilutional Hyponatremia; Euvolemic Hyponatremia; Hypervolemic Hyponatremia; Hypovolemic Hyponatremia)
|Euvolemic hyponatremia||Water level increases, but sodium level stays the same|
|Hypervolemic hyponatremia||Water and sodium levels increase, but the water gain is greater|
|Hypovolemic hyponatremia||Water and sodium levels decrease, but the sodium loss is greater|
- Too much fluid intake
- Diarrhea or vomiting
Conditions such as:
- Kidney failure
- Heart failure
- Cirrhosis (a type of liver damage)
- Hypothyroidism (underactive thyroid)
- Pancreatitis (inflammation of the pancreas)
- Peritonitis (inflammation of the abdominal lining)
- Blockage of small intestine
- Gland disorders (eg, Addison’s disease , syndrome of inappropriate secretion of antidiuretic hormone)
Taking certain medicines such as:
- Diuretics (medicines that increase urine output)
- Certain psychiatric medicines
|Kidney failure is one condition that may cause hyponatremia.|
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- Drinking too much fluid (eg, water)
- Taking certain medicines
- Having certain conditions
- Having certain medical procedures (eg, prostate surgery )
- Participating in endurance exercise, like running marathons
- Being of advanced age
- IV treatment—While in the hospital, fluids may be delivered through a needle in the vein. In some cases, this may lead to hyponatremia.
- Loss of appetite
- Muscle twitching
- Ask about your symptoms
- Ask about your fluid intake
- Take your medical history
- Do a physical exam
- Blood tests—to check the sodium level in your blood, as well as other blood tests to check the functioning of your organs (eg, kidneys, heart, liver)
- Urine test—to check the sodium level in your urine
- What is causing the low sodium level
- How long the sodium level has been low
- How low the sodium level is
- Restricting the amount of fluids consumed
- Identifying the underlying cause and getting proper treatment
- Taking medicines to help remove extra fluid from your body
- Using an IV to deliver sodium and fluid to correct the balance
- If participating in sports, drink only as much water or sports drinks as you need to quench your thirst. Sports drinks that provide electrolytes, such as sodium, may be helpful during endurance events.
- Work with your doctor to effectively manage any conditions that you may have.
American Academy of Family Physicians http://www.aafp.org/
National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases http://www2.niddk.nih.gov/
The College of Family Physicians of Canada http://www.cfpc.ca/
Health Canada http://www.hc-sc.gc.ca/
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Hyponatremia. The Merck Manual for Healthcare Professionals website. Available at: http://www.merckmanuals.com/professional/sec13/ch167/ch167a.html . Updated May 2009. Accessed August 22, 2011.
Mayo Clinic Staff. Hyponatremia. Mayo Clinic website. Available at: http://www.mayoclinic.com/health/hyponatremia/DS00974 . Updated July 14, 2011. Accessed August 22, 2011.
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Sodium. The Merck Manual Home Health Handbook for Patients and Caregivers website. Available at: http://www.merckmanuals.com/home/sec14/ch171/ch171b.html#v1151161 . Updated August 2008. Accessed August 22, 2011.
- Reviewer: Lawrence Frisch, MD, MPH
- Review Date: 09/2011 -
- Update Date: 09/09/2011 -